Cd|KOH|NiOOH

Zn|NH4CI|MnO2

Li|LiClO4|MnO2

Pb|H2SO4|PbO2

H2|KOH|O2

Peculiarities of the kinetic laws of cathode synthesis of the Cu–Pb–Bi–Ca system designed for using as an anode of a metal-ion battery

УДК 541.135

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1608-4039-2016-16-2-47-61

Matrix electrodes based on copper and lead were obtained by cathode intercalation: CuBi, PbBi, CuPbBi, CuCa, PbCa, CuBiCa, PbBiCa, CuPbBiCa, their composition being identified by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and open-circuit potential measurement. The laser emission micro-spectral analysis determines the depth of penetration (% of mass) of cations of bismuth, lead and calcium into the structure of the electrodes under study.

The influence of the potential value, the concentration of electrolyte on the kinetics and phase formation during the electrochemical intercalation of calcium into copper, lead and cathode synthesized alloys on their basis has been established. An increase in the rate of the formation of solid solutions of α-CaCu, α-CaPb in the series of DMF ≫ PC> DMSO solvents due to the structural and physicochemical properties of the solvents, the difference in the interaction with the solution components and electrode materials was observed.

An experimental proving of the dependence of the activating effect of the third component (alloying metals Pb, Bi) on its nature is proposed, which makes itself evident in increasing the kinetic characteristics, increasing the efficiency and duration of cycling, and also the amount of capacity delivered by the electrodes. It has been found that the observed effect is due to the influence of the size of the atoms of the alloying metals and the type of epy possible defects on the properties and structure of the initial copper and lead matrix and, thereby, on the kinetics and mechanism of calcium intercalation into the alloys under study.

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