Cd|KOH|NiOOH

Zn|NH4CI|MnO2

Li|LiClO4|MnO2

Pb|H2SO4|PbO2

H2|KOH|O2

Hybrid Supercapacitors in Aqueous Electrolytes

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).

A review of the current literature on hybrid supercapacitors (hybrid devices) in acid and alkaline electrolytes is presented.

The main trends in the development of modern hybrid carbon/PbO2 devices in sulphate electrolyte aimed at increasing the energy density, power, and cyclic durability consist in using a positive electrode of high amorphous or nanostructured lead dioxide (usually in the form of a thin film, nanowire). In addition, to improve the specific characteristics, it is proposed to use a carbon substrate for the positive electrode. Alternative carbon electrolytes, such as methanesulfonic acid, can be used in carbon/PbO2 devices.

In alkaline electrolyte, hybrid devices based on activated carbon and nickel oxide/hydroxide are used as negative and positive electrodes, respectively. Research has mainly focused on the production of nickel oxide in various ways, on the use of various substrates for the deposition of metal oxide, and on the use of electrodes, where the nickel in the positive electrode is partially replaced by cobalt, manganese, or zinc. Alternatively, the nickel in the electrode can be completely replaced by nanostructured cobalt hydroxide or bismuth oxide.

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