Cd|KOH|NiOOH

Zn|NH4CI|MnO2

Li|LiClO4|MnO2

Pb|H2SO4|PbO2

H2|KOH|O2

From Alkaline Accumulators to Supercapacitors. Nickel Oxide Electrode: Theory of Processes and Modern Technologies of Manufacture

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1608-4039-2017-17-4-173-224

Basic publications devoted to the development of theoretical ideas on the operation of the nickel-oxide electrode (NOE) in alkaline accumulators and the technologies for its production are analyzed. The urgency of this problem is due to the fact that, first, alkaline batteries are constantly being improved, and improving the operational characteristics of NOE in this situation is one of the main tasks. Second, the spectrum of practical application of nickel-oxide electrodes is constantly expanded. First of all, it is the development of nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride electrochemical systems. The next practical application of NOE is undoubtedly their use as a chemical cathode in hybrid capacitors.

Our analysis of literature sources has shown that NOE with metal-felt electrode bases are quite competitive almost for all applications, and, moreover, have a number of advantages over traditional NOE types (sufficiently high values of specific energy – up to 33 W⋅h/kg, and specific power up to 600 W/kg, a resource of 5000–10000 cycles, the absence of carbonization of the electrolyte). Very great prospects for the use of nickel oxide electrodes on a metal-felt base are expected in the design of supercapacitors with chemical cathodes. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to show the developers the current state of the theory of NOE and the technologies for its manufacture which are most suitable for designing supercapacitors.

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