Acid batteries

Anodic behavior of electrolytically deposited lead and zinc in perchloric acid solutions and their possible use as anodes in backup power sources

The behavior of electrolytically deposited Pb and Zn in 40% perchloric acid at temperatures ranging from 30°C – +55°C. It is established that the electrochemical system Zn/HClO4/PbO2 has a higher discharge voltage and specific capacity compared to the system РЬ/НClO4/РЬO2. It is shown that in the temperature range from 0°C to +55°C the specific capacitance of the investigated electrochemical systems vary slightly.

Research of influence of carbon additives in negative active material on work of the lead-acid batteries in partial state of charge mode.

Influence of the carbon additive in negative active material (NAM) on a resource of the lead-acid batteries working in a partial state of charge mode is studied. Extreme character of dependence of speed of degradation NAM from the maintenance in it of carbon is confirmed. Perceptivity of introduction of the carbon additive in negative electrodes of the lead-acid batteries working at partial state of charge mode is demonstrated.

Estimation of lead-acid batteries exploitation possibility in high-rate charge and partial state of charge mode

Lead-acid batteries exploitation possibility in pfrtial state of charge mode is demonstrated. Influence of this mode on chfracteristics of lead-acid batteries is studied.

Electrochemical Behavior of Pb-Sn-Ca-Al-Ba Alloys in Sulfuric Acid Solution

Electrochemical properties of Pb-Sn-Ca-Al-Ва alloys with the various content of barium are studied. It is established that the additive of barium reduces electrochemical activity of alloys at their cycling, and also reduces hydrogen and oxygen overvoltage.

Structural Characteristics of Absorbent Glass Mat Separators and their Influence on Oxygen Ionization Rate in Models of Lead-Acid Accumulators

The most important structural and physicomechanical properties of absorbent glass mat separators «Hollingswoth and Vose», «Bernard Dumas», «BMSK AT Nippon» intended for lead-acid battery (LAB) are studied. It is shown that on pore size distribution strong influence puts the enclosed pressure: at compression 50 kPa there is a considerable reduction of the size of a pore. However for the separation material «BMSK AT Nippon» the share of pores with radius from 5 to 10 microns is much higher, than for the separation materials «Hollingswoth and Vose» and «Bernard Dumas». Studying of process of oxygen absorption on negative an electrode in the LAB models showed that most effectively process of absorption of oxygen occurs in the LAB models to the separation material «BMSK AT Nippon».

Accelerated charge method of the lead-acid batteries. 1. Constant current stage of the charge

Strategy of the accelerated mode of the charge, including constant current charge to 80 % state-of-charge and a pulse charge by asymmetric current to a full charge is offered. Results of the first investigation phase devoted to studying of influence of a mode constant current charge on a resource of lead-acid accumulators are presented in this work. Various influence of size of an initial charge current on degradation of positive and negative active materials and possibility of charge of the accumulator to 80 % state-of-charge for 0.5 h is demonstrated.

A Device for Charging of a Sulfated Lead-Acid Battery by Pulse Asymmetric Current

The capabilities of our designed charging device for charging of lead-acid batteries with sulfated plates by pulse asymmetric current were tested experimentally. The principle of the considered charging mode is based on alternation of short high-amplitude pulses of the charging current with discharging current pulses with their sequence frequency being multiple of the alternating current frequency in Russia (50 Hz). The designed device enables effective charging of lead-acid batteries with deeply sulfated plates, and is suitable for primary battery formation of lead-acid batteries and for restoration of the initial capacity of batteries in the process of their long-term exploitation.

Influence of pressure on structural characteristics of separation materials and oxygen ionization rate in the electrode block of the lead-acid accumulator

In this article was studied pressure influence in the electrode block of the model of the lead-acid accumulator on the most important physical properties (a specific surface, pore size distribution, compression properties, speed of capillary lifting of electrolyte) of absorbent glass mat separators of the trademarks «Hollingsworth» (USA) and "Bernard Dumas"(France) and on efficiency of an oxygen cycle. It is shown that the highest compression properties separators with a high specific surface (7-10 m2/g) possess. The increase of pressure in the electrode block conducts to pores size redistribution towards decrease in a share of a pore with a radius of 10-15 microns and increase in a share of smaller pore with radius of 1-5 microns. Observed reduction of a share of a large pore explains decrease in height and speed of lifting of electrolyte with higher pressure in the electrode block. The increase of pressure in the electrode block to 50 kPa leads to decrease oxygen ionization rate on a lead electrode.

Anodic passivation mechanism of lead-tin alloys in sulfuric acid solution

The process of formation of a passivating sulphatic film on electrodes made of lead-tin alloys was studied by voltammetry. This process was established to proceed under diffusive control and to be limited to mass transfer in the anode film. At anodic dissolution of lead-tin alloys, there proceeds active dissolution of tin which collects inside the anode film and passes to solution. Owing to the formation of a more porous sulphatic film on the surface of a tin-containing alloy, the constant of diffusive process increases.

Influence of a suspension of particles of the positive active material on negative lugs corrosion

Influence of a suspension of particles of the positive active material (PAM) in electrolyte on operation of the negative plate of the lead-acid battery is studied. The significant increase in speed of corrosion of a lead plate in case of contact of particles of PAM with its surface that can lead to appearance macro-defects on lugs of the negative plates is demonstrated.