Cd|KOH|NiOOH

Zn|NH4CI|MnO2

Li|LiClO4|MnO2

Pb|H2SO4|PbO2

H2|KOH|O2

Electrochemical capacitors

The review of current status of literature on electrochemical capacitors is presented. The electrochemical capacitors are subdivided into filmic (dielcctrical), electrolytic and supercapacitors (SC). The last are subdivided into double layer capacitors (DLC), pseudocapacitors (PC) and hybrid capacitors (HC). The recharge of double electric layer on high surface area interface of electrodes is used in DLC. Electrical charge in PC is realized at the expense of Faradaic pseudocapacitance of sufficiently reversible redox reactions and double layer capacity. HC consists of two electrodes belong to different types of electrochemical recharged devices. For example, the one electrode is among electrodes of electrolytic capacitors, the other electrode is among electrodes of DLC.
The peculiarities of electrochemical processes happening in PC on the basis of Faradaic pseudocapasitance, electron conducting polymers and HC are considered. The new type of HC involving the negative electrode on the basis of activated carbon material and the positive PbSOj/PbCb electrode is described. The influence of different factors on properties of electrodes used in SC is analyzed. Different technological versions of manufacture of SC are presented. The comparison of properties of electrochemical capacitors and batteries is exhibited.

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