Cd|KOH|NiOOH

Zn|NH4CI|MnO2

Li|LiClO4|MnO2

Pb|H2SO4|PbO2

H2|KOH|O2

Electrochemical System of LiTi₂(PO₄)₃ | 1 M Aqueous Li₂SO₄ | LiFePO₄ and Prototypes of the Lithium-Ion Battery Based on it

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).

The use of aqueous electrolyte in lithium-ion energy storage systems can choose some of the problems associated with the use of electrolytes based on organic solvents, such as a risk of ignition of an abnormal violation of tightness and the sensitivity of operational parameters to production conditions. As part of the development of one of these systems, LiTi2(PO4)3 | aqueous Li2SO4 (1 mol⋅l − 1) | LiFePO4, a technique for their implementation in the form of prototypes made using a film for lamination using an office laminator is proposed. Testing of the prototypes revealed a positive correlation of the specific capacity and specific energy of the LiTi2(PO4)3 and the full battery prototype and the cycling stability with an increase of LiFePO4 : LiTi2(PO4)3 ratio by weight from 0.33 to 2.15. The maximum specific discharge capacity of LiTi2(PO4)3 was observed for the prototype with a mass ratio of 1.74 and amounted to 116 mA⋅h⋅g − 1. At the same time, the specific discharge capacity of LiFePO4 varies in a wide range from 41 to 104 mA⋅h⋅g − 1 without significant correlation with the balance of active materials, and these values are much smaller than demonstrated by it in a half-cell with guaranteed absence of the influence of processes on the counter electrode (146 mA⋅h⋅g − 1).

Literature

1. Oishi S., Abe T., Nagaura T., Watanabe M. Cell having current cutoff valve, EP 0364995B1, Apr 25, 1990. Available at: https://patents.google.com/patent/EP0364995B1/fr?oq=0364995 (accessed 10 October 2019).

2. Tarascon J. M., Armand M. Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001, vol. 414, pp. 359–367.

3. Saw L. H., Ye Y., Tay A. A. O. Integration issues of lithium-ion battery into electric vehicles battery pack. J. Clean. Prod., 2016, vol. 113, pp. 1032–1045.

4. Li W., Dahn J. R., Wainwright D. S. Rechargeable lithium batteries with aqueous electrolytes. Science, 1994, vol. 264, no. 5162, pp. 1115–1118.

5. Padhi A. K., Nanjundaswamy K. S., Goodenough J. B. Phospho-olivines as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1997, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 1188–1194.

6. Delmas C., Nadiri A., Soubeyroux J. L. The NASICON-type titanium phosphates ATi2(PO4)3 (A = Li, Na) as electrode materials. Solid State Ionics, 1988, vol. 28–30, pp. 419–423.

7. Osintsev D. I., Devyatkina Ye. T., Uvarov N. F., Kosova N. V. Lithium titanophosphate as a cathode, anode and electrolyte for lithium batteries. Electrochemical Energetics, 2005, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 139–145 (in Russian).

8. Martı́nez-Juárez A., Pecharromán C., Iglesias J. Relationship between Activation Energy and Bottleneck Size for Li+ Ion Conduction in NASICON Materials of Composition LiMM′(PO4)3; M, M′) Ge, Ti, Sn, Hf. J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 372–375.

9. Liu L., Zhou M., Wang G., Guo H., Tian F., Wang X. Synthesis and characterization of LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanocomposite as lithium intercalation electrode materials. Electrochim. Acta, 2012, no. 70, pp. 136–141.

10. Kim H., Hong J., Park K. Y., Kim H., Kim S. W., Kang K. Aqueous rechargeable Li and Na ion batteries. Chem. Rev., 2014, vol. 114, no. 23, pp. 11788–11827.

11. Dong X., Chen L., Su X., Wang Y., Xia Y. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Densit. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2016, vol. 55, pp. 7474–7477.

12. Luo J. Y., Cui W. J., He P., Xia Y. X. Raising the cycling stability of aqueous lithium-ion batteries by eliminating oxygen in the electrolyte. Nature Chemistry, 2010, vol. 2, pp. 760–765.

13. Gridina N. A., Romanova V. O., Churikov M. A., Churikov A. V., Ivanishcheva I. A., Zapsis K. V., Volynskiy V. V., Klyuyev V. V. Investigation of cathode material LiMnyFe1 − yPO4 for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical Energetics, 2013, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 181–186 (in Russian).

14. Bulyukina V. A., Ushakov A. V., Churikov A. V. Functional behavior of the materials based on iron(II)-lithium phosphate with the trifilite structure in the lithium accumulatory system with aqueous electrolyte. Electrochemical Energetics, 2017, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 37–55 (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1608-4039-2017-1-37-55

15. Kulova T. L., Skundin A. M. A simple method for diagnosing the causes of electrode degradation during cycling of lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical Energetics, 2011, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 171–178 (in Russian).

Full Text (PDF):
(downloads: 118)